Windshield washer fluidDefinition:
Windshield washer fluid is a brightly colored liquid made of methanol, a poisonous alcohol. Sometimes small amounts of other toxic alcohols such as ethylene glycol are added to the mixture.
Some young children may mistake the fluid for juice, which can lead to accidental poisoning. Even small amounts can cause significant damage. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing windshield washer fluid.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol)
This poison is found in:
- Windshield washer fluid (used to clean automobile windows)
Symptoms of windshield washer fluid poisoning affect many different body systems, including:
Airway and lungs:
- Breathing difficulty
- No breathing
Blindness , complete or partial, sometimes described as "snow blindness"
- Dilation (widening) of the pupils
Heart and blood
Skin and nails
Stomach and intestines
- Abdominal pain (severe)
- Vomiting, sometimes bloody
Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional.
Before Calling Emergency:
The following information is helpful for emergency assistance:
- Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?)
- Name of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)
- Time it was swallowed
- Amount swallowed
However, DO NOT delay calling for help if this information is not immediately available.
In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. You can call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room:
The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The person may receive:
- Activated charcoal
- Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator)
- Blood and urine tests
- Chest x-ray
- CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan
- EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
- Fluids through a vein (intravenous or IV)
- Medicine to treat symptoms, including antidotes to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol)
- Tube through the nose to remove the remaining poison if the person is seen within 60 minutes of swallowing it
Because rapid removal of methanol is a key to treatment and survival, a kidney machine (renal dialysis) will likely be needed.
Methanol, the main ingredient in windshield washing fluid, is extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons can be deadly to a child. About 2 to 8 ounces can be deadly for an adult. Blindness is common and often permanent despite medical care.
The ultimate outcome depends on how much poison was swallowed and how soon treatment was received.
Although many windshield washer fluids are a watered-down form of methanol, they can still be dangerous if swallowed.
Barceloux DC, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, et al. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46.
Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006.
Michael JB. Deadly pediatric poisons: nine common agents that kill at low doses. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004; 22(4): 1019-50.
White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 155.